Vitrification is a technology used for freezing embryos and eggs. The embryologist can
use the frozen egg or embryo for later use. The use of vitrification technology is not
limited to fertility space. It can also convert a crystalline structure into a smooth
While freezing any cell in a lab, the prime focus is to avoid ice crystal formation due
to subzero temperatures. The sharp edges of ice crystals can damage the cell membrane.
Also, water inside the cells expands in volume when it becomes ice, causing rupture of
the cell ice crystals and posing significant and fatal problems for cells.
Vitrification is one of the most effective solutions to this problem.
Vitrification is a three-step technology
- Step 1
- The technician exposes eggs or embryos to high concentrations of cryoprotectants.
These cryoprotectants allow rapid dehydration of cells.
- Step 2
- It involves the loading of the eggs or embryos into tiny storage devices to
facilitate ultra-rapid cooling
- Step 3
- These storage devices cool the eggs and embryos rapidly. The high cooling rate
allows the embryos/eggs and the surrounding fluid to turn to a glass-like substance.
This glass-like substance can protect the embryo/eggs from damage and give survival
rates above 90%.
- De freezing
- When people need their vitrified embryos or eggs, they are brought back to 37°C and
then allowed for rehydration. This procedure takes just 20 minutes. The technician
puts the warmed cells in the incubator. The embryologist can transfer the warmed
embryos immediately; inject the warmed eggs with a single sperm within 3-4 hours.